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Byproducts from bacteria awaken dormant T-cells, HIV viruses PDF Print E-mail

Dental and medical researchers from Case Western Reserve University found another reason to treat periodontal disease as soon as possible.

They discovered that byproducts of bacteria in gum disease, called metabolic small chain fatty acid (SCFA), can work together to wake up HIV in dormant T-cells and cause the virus to replicate.

Their findings help explain why people with the HIV -infections and periodontal disease have higher levels of the virus in their saliva than HIV patients with healthy gums.

The researchers speculate that byproducts from other bacteria infections in other diseases might change gene expression using similar mechanisms.

For dental patients with HIV, their findings further support how important it is to treat bacterial infections in gum disease early.

This interaction by SCFA and T-cells surprised co-investigators Fengchun Ye, assistant professor of biological sciences at the Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine, and Jonathan Karn, director of the Center for Aids Research and professor and chair of the Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology at Case Western Reserve's medical school.

Their findings are described in the article, "Short chain fatty acids potently induce latent HIV-1 in T-cells by activating P-TEFb and multiple histone modifications," published in January 2015 in the journal Virology.

In the interaction between gum disease and HIV, five SCFA byproducts from two prevalent oral bacteria -- Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) -- are involved in activating resting immune T-cells carrying latent (inactive) HIV-1 virus.

The process acts much like the jumper cables attached to a live battery recharging a dead one to get it running again, according the researchers.

Ye explained that all humans have a reservoir of resting T-cells that wake up and respond to inflammation to ward off an infection in the body.

"As long as someone is healthy, the reservoir remains untapped," he said.

But for people with HIV, these T-cells can also have the sleeper HIV-1 virus, which remains in a dormant state until awakened, Karn said.

Last year, Ye and Karn discovered that one SCFA -- butyric acid -- induced a chain of events that reactivate the virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, the most common malignancy in HIV patients.

Following that discovery, the researchers expanded their investigation to all SCFAs. They found that a high quantity of butyric acid activates the T-cell and incites virus replication. But smaller amounts of the five SCFA, working together, have the same impact.

"Looking at only butyric acid was misleading," said Karn, the Reinberger Professor of Molecular Biology. "It surprised us to find they all work as an aggregate."

The impact on waking up T-cells and activating HIV replication was a "double whammy" find that contributes to understanding the little-known microbiome in HIV disease, Karn said.

That prompted the researchers to investigate the mechanism that drives the replication of the virus in gum disease.

HIV antiviral therapy prevents active HIV cells from replicating and doesn't affect the quiet viruses in sleeping T-cells.

As long as the patient is free of gum disease, the virus sleeps and remains in check, Karn said.

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Case Western Reserve University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

http://feeds.sciencedaily.com/~r/sciencedaily/health_medicine/dentistry/~3/xEgi1BYEUYY/150105112500.htm

 
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The selection recognizes Dr. Roberto Palmieri's commitment to excellence in Healthcare.
 
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By mendy r

Dental porcelain laminates, also called dental veneers, are essentially wafer-thin, custom-made shells designed to cover the front surface of your teeth. These shells may be bonded to your teeth to change how they appear in terms of shape, size, color, and even length. These veneers are most commonly used to fix a range of dental […]

The post Why and How Porcelain Veneers are Used appeared first on Worldental.Org.

 
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Warm spring and summer days entice residents of St. Marys, GA to spend more time outdoors. While the bright sunshine and physical activity can be beneficial for the rest of your body, it can cause damage your oral health. Consider this article as a guidance to protect your oral health in the warm months. In […]

The post How to Maintain Oral Health During Summer and Spring appeared first on Worldental.Org.

 
5 Reasons to Opt for a Laser Dentistry Service PDF Print E-mail

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The dental fraternity has been one of the top beneficiaries of laser technology. Offering great versatility and the powerful ability to make precise cuts, it is fast becoming an essential feature in dental practices not only in Jacksonville but also all over the world. While it is natural for patients to be apprehensive over any […]

The post 5 Reasons to Opt for a Laser Dentistry Service appeared first on Worldental.Org.

 
Bad Tooth Brushing Habits That You Should Nip In The Bud PDF Print E-mail

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Yes, brushing your teeth is just one of those jobs that you need to tick off your daily routine, but more than providing you with minty fresh breath, you’re investing in the health of your pearly whites. Your teeth aren’t going to last forever, so make sure you get as much longevity out of them […]

The post Bad Tooth Brushing Habits That You Should Nip In The Bud appeared first on Worldental.Org.

 
PCOMS ANNUAL NATIONAL CONVENTION PDF Print E-mail
The 38th Annual Convention of PCOMS coninciding with its 55th Anniversary will be held this JANUARY 24 – 25, 2015 at the Auditorium of the Lung Center of the Philippines.  This years theme “Empowering the practice of OMS” will feature … Continue reading
 
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